Tiles Manufacturing Process: A Guide on How Tiles Are Made

Tiles Manufacturing Process: A Guide on How Tiles Are Made

How tiles are made


Tiles are an essential element of interior design, adding functionality, durability, and aesthetic appeal to various spaces, such as kitchens, bathrooms, living rooms, and outdoor areas. In today’s construction industry, tiles are one of the most common materials used in construction for flooring and walls. But have you ever wondered how tiles are made? The tile manufacturing process is a fascinating journey that involves several intricate steps. Although different types of tiles have different mixtures at different firing temperatures, all tiles have a common method of manufacturing. In this article, we’ll take an inside look at the step-by-step process of manufacturing tiles. We’ll provide an overview of each stage from beginning to end, from the selection of raw materials to the delivery of finished products. 

How Tiles are Made 

Clay Preparation

The process of making tiles requires a variety of different materials, but clay is the major material used in manufacturing tiles. Various types of clays such as feldspar and silica are commonly used clay. The cleaned clay is mixed with minerals and blended together to create a semi-fine powder. Then water is added to this mixture to create a uniform consistency. Once it is done mixing, it is pumped into a dryer. 

Pressing & Drying 

The clay mixture is pressed into molds using hydraulic presses to create tiles with precise shapes and sizes. In order to ensure optimal density, each tile is pressed at high pressure. Once the tiles are desired shape and size it is left to dry in sun or shade for about two days to remove moisture. Drying is a critical step in tile manufacturing, as it affects the strength, quality, and uniformity of the finished product. 


Glazing is the process of applying a layer of liquid glass or ceramic coating, called the glaze, onto the surface of the dried tiles. Glazing adds color, texture, and protection to the tiles. There are various glazing techniques used in tile manufacturing, such as dipping, spraying, and digital printing.

  • Dipping: Tiles are dipped into a glaze solution to coat the entire surface. The excess glaze is removed, and the tiles are left to dry before proceeding to the firing process.
  • Spraying: Glaze is sprayed onto the tiles using spray guns, allowing for more precise application and customization. The tiles are then left to dry before proceeding to the firing process.
  • Digital Printing: In this modern technique, a digital image is printed onto the tile surface using inkjet technology, allowing for intricate designs and patterns. The printed tiles are then dried before proceeding to the firing


After the tiles are glazed and dried, they are loaded onto ceramic rollers and fed into a kiln, which acts like a colossal oven. The kiln rotates the tiles as they pass through, subjecting them to high temperatures of over 1200 degrees Celsius (for porcelain tiles) or lower temperatures of 1050 to 1100 degrees Celsius (for wall tiles). These kilns can span up to 200 meters in length and are powered by gas and energy-efficient burners. Interestingly, some factories also harness the waste heat generated by the kiln to dry tiles or generate electricity, exemplifying their commitment to sustainability and resourcefulness.


Unglazed porcelain tiles can be polished using abrasive grinding stones. This polishing process is often accompanied by grinding of all four edges of the tile to correct any size inconsistencies, eliminating even the slightest variations that are common in ceramic tiles. Any defects or imperfections are immediately identified and set aside for rectification or repurposing by sealing process to close any micropores that may have opened during the polishing process.


Once the tiles are removed from the kiln, they undergo a thorough quality assurance process using advanced testing, sensing, and measuring equipment. These sophisticated devices meticulously examine each tile for any potential defects, such as pinholes, edge chips, glaze lumps, stains, cracks, and color consistency. Additionally, laser beams are utilized to ensure precise size, calibration, and straightness, with an accuracy of 0.1mm. The tiles are also checked for flatness in the corners and center. Once the automatic grading systems assess the tiles, the information is transmitted to the sorting line and packaging unit. 

Packaging & Shipping

Once the tiles are ready to make their way to the customer. The tiles are then grouped based on their grade, shade, and size before being carefully packed in cartons that match their respective products. Typically, the manufacturer will package them for shipping, then label and palletize the boxes for transport.


Tiles manufacturing process involves several intricate steps to ensure the production of high-quality finished products. From the initial preparation of raw materials to the molding, glazing, and firing processes, manufacturers utilize advanced technologies and equipment, such as laser beams and automated grading systems, to meticulously inspect and measure each tile for defects and dimensional accuracy. Each stage requires expertise and care to create beautiful tiles that can be used for years to come. The history of the tile-making process has been shaped by the technological advances of the day. From the introduction of steam-powered machinery to improvements in the firing process, these advances have allowed for the mass production of tiles, making them one of the most used materials in the construction and home improvement industry. If you are interested to check out various collections of tiles for your construction, Builers9 provides a diverse range of tiles from various brands.