Building materials are those materials that are used at that time of constructing buildings and homes. Materials like wood, clay, sand, bricks, rods, concrete, etc are those essentials without these construction cannot take place.
The types of building materials used for the construction purposes are:
1. Natural construction material: Construction materials can be segmented into two types i.e natural and synthetic. Natural materials refer to materials that are unprocessed and don’t require any further. Synthetic materials are those materials that are made by humans by combining 2-3 other materials.
2. Mud and Clay: The amount of each material used to lead different types of buildings. The deciding factor depends upon the types of materials being used. Mud is those compounds that are the result of the earth’s mixture, it’s a soft sticky matter. Clay is fine-grained earth that can be molded by adding water and is dried to make bricks, pottery, and ceramics.
3. Rock/stone: This is the solid and dry part of the earth’s surface that is usually found beneath and above the ground. It varies in size and texture. Large mountains and hills are formed by the rocks. Rocks are formed by the composition of many natural elements and hence it is readily available in the market. Stones are the oldest building material used since ancient times. It is usually used for buildings foundations, floors, retaining walls, and columns.
4. Wood: Wood is a product of trees. It is the hard part of the tree that forms the main part of the trunk.
5. Brick and block: A brick is a block made of kiln-fiber material usually clay or shale but also of low-quality mud. Bricks are widely used for construction purposes as it helps to give the wall to the buildings. Bricks are rectangular blocks usually hardened by heating or chemical process.
6. Concrete: Concrete is a composite material made from the combination of aggregate and a binder such as cement. Concretes are strengthened using steel rods or bars. It is made up of cement, fine and coarse aggregates, and water of suitable proportion. Concrete properties are determined by the quantity and mix ratio of concrete ingredients. The use of concrete has become predominant in construction where strength and durability are prime factors. There are types of concrete being used in construction such as plain cement concrete, reinforced cement concrete, and prestressed concrete.
7. Metal: Metal is used for structuring large buildings such as skyscrapers, bridges, flyovers, etc. Metals of various types are used in construction. Steel is the usual choice of constructors as its major component is iron. There are 3 types of steel used in common
(a) Rebar steel: Also known as steel reinforcement is one of the vital components of modern construction. Steel is used in order to resist the tension that acts on the member due to bending or later needs.
(b) Structural steel: It is an alloy of iron made by using carbon and manganese. The structured steel is pre-fabricated at factories and can be easily erected at the site making the construction process faster.
(c) Chicken wire mesh: This is used for the construction of Ferro concrete. Ferroconcrete also called Ferrocement is a type of reinforced concrete structure made up of cement, fine aggregates, Hexagonal, or square chicken wire mesh, and water.
8. Cement composites: Cement is a binder. It is a construction material that sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together. Cement is produced by burning at a high temperature in a definite mixture of calcareous, siliceous, and aluminous raw materials and crushing the resulting clinkers. Cement is the most costly ingredient in concrete and is available in a variety of forms. When cement gets mixed with water a chemical reaction starts and it turns into a paste that binds all the materials into it.
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